Soviet cinema rose in the 20's as a Marxist propaganda force, encouraging understandable cinema for the masses and abhorring Western ideologies. Some few experimental exceptions, such as «The Man with a Movie Camera» (Dziga Vertov, 1929), withstand but these instances are quite seldom. In the early 60's, cinema took some independence but anything that did not comply morally or politically with the regime was censored and its author blacklisted. Criticism become hidden behind surrealistic set-up and abstract imagery, leading to a new wave of cinema, namely in Poland, Czechoslovakia, and then Yugoslavia. Some film directors started playing the dangerous game of pushing the limits, either by political criticism or by the expression of ideas disturbing the established morals. Using various artistic forms, each of the directors proposed in this program were fighting for freedom of expression and of the individual, in complete denial of a despotic authority inherited from the Stalin era.